Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is actually quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. In case you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are currently in the process of experiencing a miscarriage, you may be wondering what caused the loss and worry about whether it’ll happen again. This article aims to answer the next questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What type of genetic testing can be acquired for miscarriage tissue?
How do chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most typical cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also known as “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved in a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is necessary that it have the right quantity of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or in an embryo or fetus could cause a woman to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are due to chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep upsurge in women older than 35.

I had a miscarriage Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is far more common than a lot of people think. Up to one atlanta divorce attorneys four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The opportunity of experiencing a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.

Most women who experience a miscarriage go on to get a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women seem to be more susceptible to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage seems to be increasing. One reason for this can be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas in past times the miscarriage would have were just a unique period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Ideal for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also known as products of conception (POC), the most useful type of test to execute is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also called chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue can often identify the reason for the pregnancy loss.

The most common approach to chromosome analysis is named karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as for example microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, a process called “cell culture”. For this reason requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this particular method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples neglect to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping struggles to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. In case a normal female result is found, it may be the right result for the fetus or it could be maternal cell contamination (MCC) where the result actually originates from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC appears to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually have a few weeks to months another from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing can be in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more likely to receive results and the outcomes are usually returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood as well the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How do it help?

In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the kind of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer fully the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. More often than not, chromosome abnormalities within an embryo or fetus are not inherited and have a minimal chance to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your physician to do further studies to investigate the chance of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the cause of the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason behind a pregnancy loss can help a couple start the emotional healing process, moving at night question of “Why did this eventually me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially very important to patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or rule out chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to truly have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing may be able to help increase their likelihood of having an effective healthy pregnancy.